|Nicknames: La Ciudad Blanca (The White City), The Rome of America|
|Established||15 August 1540|
|- Mayor||Simón Balbuena Marroquín|
|- City||9,862.02 km2 (3,807.7 sq mi)|
|- Metro||2,923.53 km2 (1,128.8 sq mi)|
|Elevation||2,380 m (7,740 feet ft)|
|- City||904,931 (2,009 – World-Gazetteer.com)|
|- Metro||904,931 (2,009)|
|- Metro Density||280.23/km2 (725.8/sq mi)|
|Time zone||PET (UTC-5)|
|- Summer (DST)||PET (UTC−5)|
Arequipa (Spanish pronunciation: [aɾeˈkipa]) is the capital city of the Arequipa Region in southern Peru. With a population of 904,931 it is the second most populous city of the country. Arequipa lies in the Andes mountains, at an altitude of 2,380 meters (7,800 feet) above sea level; the snow-capped volcano El Misti overlooks the city.
Reportedly, it first acquired this nickname in the colonial era, because most of its inhabitants were Creole of peninsular (Spanish) descent. The historic centre of Arequipa was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2000, in recognition of its architecture and historic integrity.
Soon after its founding, the city became a major commercial hub of southern Peru, accumulating commercial and administrative functions.
The city articulated in times of the Viceroyalty of Peru an important economic hub in southern Peru, its role in the history of the Republic of Peru was and is gravitating, becoming declared "Capital of the Republic" during the government of Montero.
Arequipa has also been home of many of the outstanding intellectual figures, political and religious icons in the country. In recent decades it has become an important industrial and commercial center of Peru, now being the second most industrialized city in Perú.
They said that the name came from an old dialect ofAymara. Ari qquepan (literally, way of war horn) was named after a marine snail which the Indians used as a horn. In English the phrase means "trumpet sound".
They contend the name is derived from Aymara, with the phrase ari qhipaya; ari (acute, sharp or pointed) and qhipaya (behind), meaning "behind the bill," referring to the volcanic cone of El Misti, Arequipa, which dominates the skyline.
The climate of Arequipa is one that is especially warm and rather dry, all through the year. Arequipa lies alongside the southernmost tip of Peru's Desert Coast and enjoys plenty of sunny weather, with daytime temperatures rarely dipping much below 20°C / 68°F or thereabouts.
However, by night, temperatures in Arequipa can drop sharply, particularly in June, July and August, when evening temperatures hover around 10°C / 50°F and can feel quite chilly. Therefore, you will need to consider the climate, seasonal weather and temperature fluctuations carefully when filling your suitcase, and pack accordingly.
Arequipa is located in the southwestern part of the country and is the second biggest city of Peru, with a population of almost one million. It is the largest city in the Peruvian Andes. It is also the capital of the department of Arequipa, 663.8 miles (1,068 km) from Lima.
Both names come from the Quechualanguage from the Inca Empire. Arequipa has more than 80 volcanoes, most of which can be found in the Valley of the Volcanoes. Unfortunately the city was built on a very earthquake prone area, and was completely destroyed by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions during the 1600s.
During the 15th century, the region occupied by the Aymaras was conquered by the Incas and served as an important provider of agricultural products for the Inca Empire. The Aymara named the city ‘ARI’ which means ‘peak’ and ‘QUIPA’, to lie behind. Therefore, the name Arequipa means ‘The place that lies behind the peak (Misti)’.
The modern city of Arequipa was founded on 15 August 1540 by Garci Manuel de Carbajal, an emissary of the conqueror Francisco Pizarro. A year later King Charles V of Spain gave it the rank of city and the coat of arms that still remains.
During this period Arequipa became known across the continent as a land of leaders and for the courage of the Arequipeñan rebels.
“The historic centre of Arequipa is an example of ornamental architecture, representing a masterpiece of the European creative coalition and native characteristics.”
Generally considered the second most beautiful city in Peru after Cusco, Arequipa has attractions for all kinds of tourists, many of whom come to visit the Colca Canyon, the high volcanoes or just to walk around the colonial city.
The White City of Arequipa has become the centre of economic growth in the south and is one of the most important milk producers in the country. This has allowed Arequipa to develop and grow in population and change over the years. In the mid-twentieth century there was an influx of immigration from the highlands and mountain areas, and now Arequipa’s population is a mixture of Spanish, indigenous and mixed.
It possesses a series of volcanic cones as "El Misti", "Chachani" and "Pichu Pichu", its territory is rugged due to the presence of the Andes in the west of the continent and is characterized by thick layers of volcanic lava cover large areas of its geography. There are low-lying plains and dunes that are features. Particularly beautiful and developed are those seen on the plains of Majes, Sihuas and La Joya.
The city is located at an altitude of 2328 m., the lowest part of the city lies at an altitude of 2041 m. in el Huayco and Uchumayo. The highest is located to 2810 m. The city is crossed by the river Chili by north to south.
Natural landscape of Arequipa, also known as "La Campiña"
The population of the conurbation is the same as 783,165 inhabitants is distributed in 13 districts.
Metropolitan Arequipa has a metropolitan population of 821.692 inhabitants, equivalent to 71.31% of the population of the department of Arequipa, at 95.07% of the population of the province of Arequipa and 3.00% of total population of Peru, becoming the largest city in southern Peru and the second most populous.
|Population less than one year|
Birth (hab) *
|Map of the Metropolitan Area|
|Alto Selva Alegre **||6,98||18.638||72.696||1.135||10.432,4||2.500||5|
|Cerro Colorado **||174,9||35.805||113.171||1.978||611,2||2.406||4|
|Jacobo Hunter **||20,37||10.543||46.092||724||2.268,8||2.268||7|
|José Luis Bustamante y Rivero **||10,83||18.806||76.410||1.070||70.042,5||2.310||2|
|Mariano Melgar **||29,83||12.843||52.144||872||1.786,9||2.385||3|
|*Data from the census conducted by INEI|
|**Districts of the conurbation|
According to recent reports of American Economy is the "City with greater economic growth in Latin America," presenting a percentage change in GDP per capita of 66.1% in the period 2003-2008. Also in the 2007-2008 period was the city with the highest percentage change in GDP in Latin America with a variation of 9.59%.
The city of Arequipa has certain characteristics which give it economic importance, among which we mention:
- Has an important role administrative, agricultural, commercial, financial and industrial in the area of international trade.
- It is the city of greater economic diversification in the country.
- The city of Arequipa concentrated 74.2% from 7.7% of GDP provided by the department of Arequipa in national GDP.
- Concentrates 42% of the SMEs (small and medium enterprises) in the southern region, generating 52% of the regional SAP and SAP has the largest trade amounting to 50,000 workers.
The city of Arequipa from the twentieth century has developed industries related to the primary sector and the alpaca and wool industries, provides a center of exchange and mediation in the southern Andes serving as a link between the coast and the mountains.
The city of Arequipa as the "Specialized Household Survey on Employment Levels 2007" is the city after Lima, with the largest number of economically suitable for work amounting to 625,547 people and the most economically active population (PEA) which amounts to 376,764 people. In the same survey the city of Arequipa has a rate of work activity above the national average.
The economically active population is distributed as follows: Quarrying Activities (7.1%), I manufacturing (12.9%), construction (4.8%), trade (23%), non-personal services (36, 6%), personal services (11.4%), households (4.1%).
As income of the population, the city of Arequipa as Lima, the city is showing the highest percentages of income. The income from the PEA of Arequipa, located above the national average, Arequipa consolidating as one of the cities with higher earnings in Peru together with the city of Cajamarca, Cusco, Metropolitan Lima and Puno; the four cities and Arequipa are above the Peru average.
Villa Medica towers in the José Luis Bustamante District
The city's industrial sector comprises industrial parks among which we can mention the "Parque Industrial de Arequipa" (for large and medium enterprises), the "Industrial Park APIMA" (small enterprises) and the "Industrial Park Rio Seco" and industrial areas in the Alfonso Ugarte avenue, in Uchumayo, and in the North.
The city's industrial sector has the highest level of diversification and is the second most industrialized city in Perú, product of the Industrial Park that was established during the first government ofFernando Belaúnde Terry.
After two major earthquakes, in 1958 and 1960, with the Law of the Committee for the Rehabilitation and Development of Arequipa, Industrial Park was built with two or three factories at that time, and Yura Cement factory.
Currently only in Arequipa Industrial Park there are over 150 companies, which can point to: Alicorp SAA, Processed Foods SA, Laive, La Iberica, Manuel Muñoz Najar, Bin Pan SA, Consorcio Industrial Arequipa SA, Omniagro, Backus & Johnston, Corporación Aceros Arequipa, etc..
Peru maintains good relations with France, Colombia, Brazil, Chile, Canada, Spain, Italy, China, and the United States.
Tourism is an important economic factor for Arequipa, the third most visited city in Peru. 1,217,254 people visited Arequipa in 2008, 290,983 of which were foreign (23.9%).
People who visit this city can admire the colonial architecture in the historical center of Arequipa, the magnificent Inca terraces in the countryside surrounding districts and a very extensive landscape, product of human and nature creation, an important factor for its declaration as Cultural Heritage Humanity.
It is the third most visited city in Peru after Lima and Cuzco.
Yanahuara's viewer, made by a volcanic rock called sillar.
The role of the "sillar", (volcanic rock) began in the last third of the XVI century. This volcanic stone, pearl or pink, free, inexhaustible, soft, light, thermal, aesthetic and weatherproof, emerged as a seismic structural solution. The sillar was unable to take the early years, except for the covers of the main church and some houses. The original Arequipa was built with adobe, masonry, sticks and straw roofs or mud pie.
Houses of this type were made until the nineteenth century and were common in the eighteenth century, some remain in the original district of San Lazaro. Later came the brick and tile houses with tile found in the Monastery of Santa Catalina. The cataclysm of 1582 settled these systems and raised the earthquake reconstruction. It appeared then the sillar as the prime structural solution.
So the great earthquakes marked milestones in the formation of the architecture of Arequipa. It can be mentioned five periods:
- Founding and villager (1540–1582),
- Splendor of Baroque (1582–1784),
- Rococo and Neoclassical Reviews (1784–1868),
- Empiricism and modernizing
- Neo colonial (1868–1960) and contemporary.
The sillar, has had a gravitating presence in the region, since the almost magical use by pre-Incan cultures to updated. The early settlers of the region used it to make petroglyphs and pictographs.
Currently the most important ashlar constructions are:
- The Main Square, the Cathedral and Town Hall, with beautiful architecture and surrounded by arches of ashlar are frequented by tourists. The facade of the cathedral, with neoclassical architectural style with French influences, occupies one side of the Main Square of Arequipa and shows three covers, plus two big bronze medals.
- Other important constructions are those made with religious influence. Those include the Santa Catalina Monastery (the most important religious monument of Peru). The Company Church and its cloisters, founded by Jesuits on the 17th century (which sometimes hosts different cultural and fashion events), the Church and Convent of La "Merced", the Colonial Architectural "San Francisco" (16th Century), the Franciscan Convent "La Recoleta",etc.
- Among the 500 old and colonial houses, the most important are "La Casa del Moral", "La Casa de Tristán del Pozo", "La Casa de Irriberry", "La Casa del Pastor", "El Palacio de Goyeneche" and "La Mansión del Fundador".Peru maintains good relations with France, Colombia, Brazil, Chile, Canada, Spain, Italy, China, and the United States.
Monuments and Buildings
|Historic centre of Arequipa*|
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Region**||Latin America and the Caribbean|
|Inscription||2000 (24th Session)|
|* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.|
** Region as classified by UNESCO.
- Basilica Cathedral of Arequipa
- The Company Church
- Santa Catalina Monastery
- Casa del Moral
- Casa Arróspide
- Casa de Tristán del Pozo
- Casa del Maestre Bustamante
- Palacio de Goyeneche
- San Francisco Temple
- Convent of la Recoleta
- Church of Santo Domingo
- Goyeneche Hospital
- Villa Hermosa de Yanahuara, located 2 kilometers from the city, famous for its churches built in Andalusian style and now the eponymous district is considered Cultural Heritage of Humanity.
- Villa de Cayma, 3 kilometers from downtown. Known for its "picanterías" and where there is a beautiful seventeenth century church. With a viewer, which affords a beautiful view of Arequipa.
- The thermal baths of Yura, 30 km. Its waters come from inside the volcano Chachani. Also, near the city, are the medicinal sources of Jesus and Socosani.
- Sabandia, natural valley with the most crystalline waters in the region. Here is the Sabandía mill, built in the eighteenth century and still working.
- La Mansión del Fundador, is located 12 km from the city. Built next to the Socabaya river, is a residence that belonged to different owners of historic renown of Peru. This beautiful piece of architecture is open to the public.
Museum of Art
The city of Arequipa has Alfredo Rodriguez Ballon International Airport. It is located in the district of Cerro Colorado, about 12 km Northwest of downtown at an altitude of 2561 meters and has an asphalt runway 2.980 m by 45 m. Due to its characteristics and equipment, is one of the best in Peru, holds daily air connections with the cities of Lima, Cusco, Tacna and Juliaca and international destinations such as Arica, Iquique, Antofagasta and Santiago de Chile, along with regular flights to Santa Cruz and La Paz in Bolivia.
In 2007 it had a flow of passengers equal to 575,587 passengers and a load flow of 2,083,196.28 kg in the same year, becoming as second in the southern region of the passenger traffic flow after Alexander International Airport Velasco Astete in Cuzco city and third in the country.
In 2008 the airport became the second largest airport in international passenger flow, behind Jorge Chavez International Airport.
The Bus Tour in Arequipa
Rail Transport: The railway transport enables communication between the coast and the mountains and different levels of progress and expansion of population centers in the region. The system is formed by the lines: Cusco-Puno-Arequipa-Mollendo. Is strategically important in a multimodal communication system in the southern macro region, because it is the most efficient and economical way to transport heavy loads over long distances.
Land Transportation: The city of Arequipa has a road network of 1750 km, this road network. It concentrates the second largest fleet of Peru (after Lima), with a size of 130,000 vehicles, comprising 86% of urban transport, including 3% of smaller vehicles (motorbikes), 10% of freight transport (trucks, trailers), and 4% of interprovincial transportation (buses).
Education: According to information from 2007 Census, in Arequipa, there is a student population of 823,148 people over 3 years old who attend a regular school, which represents 95.24% of the entire provincial population of Arequipa. Most education services are concentrated in Metropolitan Arequipa.
University education: The percentage of student population in the city of Arequipa is the highest in Peru, representing 23% of the population of the city and stands at a figure of 185,894 students . Therefore, Arequipa is Peru's second city with the largest university population.
The city of Arequipa has the presence of local and foreign universities, ten of them are private universities and there is a national one:
- National University of San Agustin 
- Catholic University of Santa Maria 
- Catholic University of San Pablo 
Branches of other Peruvian Universities
- Alas Peruanas University 
- Néstor Cáceres Velásquez Andean University
- Technological University of Peru (UTP) 
- Los Angeles de Chimbote University 
- National University of San Marcos (headquarter) 
Branches of foreign Universities
- University del El Mar (Chile) 
- Autonomous University of San Francisco
Culture: Arequipean culture is marked by the regional nature of its inhabitants, Arequipa, unlike other big Peruvian mestizo and indigenous cities features as "a Spanish island in an indigenous sea" is the wellspring of juxtaposed positions, as a result of Arequipa regional patterns are more clearly defined than in the rest of Peru, while both culturally and geographically is described by Thomas Love as a cultural oasis and natural.
Arequipan cuisine has remained more heavily influenced by Spanish colonial cuisine than that in Lima and it has remained relatively free from the later influence of immigrants that migrated to Lima, such as the Chinese and Japanese.
For example, a Spanish rabbit stew continues to be popular in Arequipa while in Lima it has now become a rare dish. The area's peppers and chili peppers, various fruits and vegetables, beef, sheep, guinea pig, pig, alpaca, ostrich, variety of fish and shrimp, milk and high quality cheeses, wines and pisco, corn, all provide great flavors.
The places were traditional food is sold are called picanterías.
Arequipa is known for its Spanish colonial style stews and casseroles cooked in firewood and clay pots of picantería.
Among the best known are the Chupe de Camarones (shrimp), Ocopa Arequipeña, Rocoto Relleno (stuffed chili), Adobo, Solterito de Queso, Potato Cake, Costillar Frito, Cuy Chactado (Guinea Pig), Cauche de Queso, Locro, Chaque de Pecho, etc.
Common items for desert include: Queso Helado, donuts, Spanish style convent candy, chocolates and Chicha de Jora (made of black corn, beer and anise liqueur).Traditionally, a set list of dishes are served on each day of the week (that seldom changes) as was common during the Spanish colonial period: Monday: Chaque, Tuesday: Chair, Wednesday: chochoca, Thursday: red stew or potato flour, Friday: Stew, Saturday: Stew or Timpusca and Sunday: white broth Pebre loins and Adobo.
Mario Vargas Llosa, considered one of the most important writers of his generation
The identity of the Arequipean literature is well defined. Mariano Melgar is one of the most important writers, then we have poetic voices from Benito Bonifaz, Manuel Castillo, José Mariano Llosa, Ignacio Gamio, among others. Writers like Manuel Gonzales Prada would say "No se nace en vano al pie de un volcán (In English: "not in vain were we born at the foot of a volcano)", showing the proud and the loftiness that have always been notorious among the older people.
The 20th century proposes the characteristic rhythm and carefree youth, who receive vanguard influences, then it is going to develop a magnific literature culture in Arequipa, making of this city the City of Culture in Peru.
Currently Arequipa maintains a very intense literary life, and is also known the most important Peruvian writer alive, Mario Vargas Llosa, nominated several times for the Nobel Prize of Literature.
Notable people from Arequipa
- Ignacio Álvarez Thomas, soldier who fought in the independence war in Argentina. Supreme Director of the Argentine Federation from 1815 to 1816.
- Rafael Velarde, politician, Deputy, Minister of Foreign Affairs (1879)
- José Bustamante y Rivero, president of Peru (1945–1948)
- Pedro Diez Canseco, two-time president of Perú. He was previously vice president twice.
- Francisco García Calderón, president of Peru (1881)
- Eduardo López de Romaña, president of Peru (1899–1903)
- Mario Vargas Llosa, renowned writer
- Francisco Xavier de Luna Pizarro, priest and politician; president of Peru during two brief occasions
- Nicolás de Piérola, president of Peru 1879–1881 and 1895–1899
- Hernando de Soto, renowned international economist
- ^ Chambers, Sarah C. From Subjects to Citizens: Honor, Gender, and Politics in Arequipa, Peru 1780–1854. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. 1999.
- ^ "History of Arequipa". About Arequipa. Retrieved 5 Apr. 2010.
- ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática Distancia y tiempo que hay de la capital distrital a la capital provincial
- ^ National Institute of Statistic and Informatic Banco de Información Distrital
- ^ "Universidad Andina "Néstor Cáceres Velásquez"". Uancv.edu.pe. 28 Feb. 2010. Retrieved 5 Apr. 2010.
- ^ "Charlotte - Arequipa". 2004. Retrieved 9 April 2008.
- ^ Ayuntamiento de Guanajuato. "Ciudades hermanadas" (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 July 2009.
- ^ "Estudiantes de Universidad de San Agustín de Arequipa saludaron a alcaldesa". Municipioiquique.com. Retrieved 5 Apr. 2010.
- ^ "Microsoft Word - RESUMEN EJECUTIVO RELACIONES.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 5 Apr. 2010.
- ^ "Sister cities, Vancouver". Accci.com.au. 14 Nov. 2001. Retrieved 5 Apr. 2010.
- ^ "State of hawaii's Sister States/Cities". Hawaii Government. Retrieved 26 July 2009.
- ^ "Cultura > Città gemellater". Comune.biella.it. Retrieved 5 Apr. 2010.
- ^ "Avventure nel Mondo - Centro di Documentazione". Viaggiavventurenelmondo.it. 28 May 2007. Retrieved 5 Apr. 2010.
- Arequipa travel guide from Wikitravel
- Arequipa Hotels
- General facts and travel information about Arequipa
- Local government of Arequipa
The Company Church, localized near the Main Square