|Nicknames: Paris in the Orient, the Pearl of the Orient, the Pearl of the Far East|
|- Total||809.23 sq mi (2,095 km2)|
|Elevation||63 ft (19 m)|
|Population (Census April 1, 2009)|
|- Total||7,162,864 (1st in Vietnam)|
|- Density||8,851/sq mi (3,419/km2)|
|Area code(s)||+84 (8)|
The metropolitan area, which consists of the Saigon metropolitan area, Thủ Dầu Một, Dĩ An, Biên Hòa and surrounding towns, is populated by more than 9 million people,[nb 1] making it the most populous metropolitan area in Vietnam and the countries of the former French Indochina.
The Greater Saigon Metropolitan Area, a metropolitan area covering most parts of Đông Nam Bộ plus Tiền Giang and Long An provinces under planning will have an area of 30,000 square kilometers with a population of 20 million inhabitants by 2020.
Location of the hexagonal Gia Dinh Citadel (r) and Cholon area (tilted square, left) in 1815. Today this forms the area of Saigon.
Traditional Vietnamese Name
After Prey Nokor was settled by Vietnamese refugees from the north, in time it came to be known unofficially as Sài Gòn.
There is much debate about the origins of the Vietnamese name, Sài Gòn, the etymology of which is analyzed below.
The Vietnamese name, Sài Gòn, is sometimes written in two words, which is the traditional convention in Vietnamese spelling.
However, the name is sometimes written as “SaiGon” or “Saigon” in order to save space or give it a more Westernized look.
A frequently heard, and reasonable, explanation is that Sài is a Chinese loanword (柴, pronounced chái in Mandarin) meaning “firewood, lops, twigs; palisade”, while Gòn is another Chinese loanword (棍, pronounced gùn in Mandarin) meaning “stick, pole, bole”, and whose meaning evolved into “cotton” in Vietnamese (bông gòn, literally “cotton stick”, i.e., “cotton plant”, then shortened to gòn).
Another explanation is that the etymological meaning “twigs” (sài) and “boles” (gòn) refers to the dense and tall forest that once existed around the city, a forest to which the Khmer name, Prey Nokor, already referred.
Another reasonable etymology was offered by Vương Hồng Sển, a Vietnamese scholar in the early 20th century, who asserted that Sài Gòn had its origin in the Cantonese name of Cholon (Chợ Lớn; chu nom ) , the Chinese district of Saigon.
Another etymology often proposed, although held now as a least-likely etymology, is that “Saigon” comes from “Sai Côn”, which would be the transliteration of the Khmer word, Prey Nokor (Khmer: prey means 'forest' or 'jungle'; nokor, from Sanskrit nagara, means city or kingdom), meaning “Forest Kingdom”.
This Khmer etymology theory is quite interesting, given the Khmer context that existed when the first Vietnamese settlers arrived in the region. However, it fails to completely explain how Khmer “prey” led to Vietnamese "sài", since these two syllables appear phonetically quite distinct and as the least reasonable and least likely candidate from the Khmer etymology.
Sài Gòn is still the most common way to refer to the city in conversation inside Vietnam, and especially within Vietnamese communities outside Vietnam.
Sài Gòn Railway Station in District 3, the main railway station serving the city, also retains the name. The name is found in company names, book titles and even on airport departure boards — the IATA code for Tân Sơn Nhất International Airport is SGN.
Saigon began as a small fishing village known as Prey Nokor. The area that the city now occupies was originally swampland, and was inhabited by Khmer people for centuries before the arrival of the Vietnamese. It should be noted that in Khmer folklore southern Vietnam was given to the Vietnamese government as a dowry for the marriage of a Vietnamese princess to a Khmer prince in order to stop constant invasions and pillaging of Khmer villages.
Busy Saigon Street in 1966
Beginning in the early 17th century, colonization of the area by Vietnamese settlers gradually isolated the Khmer of the Mekong Delta from their brethren in Cambodia proper and resulted in their becoming a minority in the delta.
Increasing waves of Vietnamese settlers, which the Cambodian kingdom could not impede because it was weakened by war with Thailand, slowly Vietnamized the area. In time, Prey Nokor became known as Saigon.
Prey Nokor was the most important commercial seaport to the Khmers.
The city’s name was changed by Vietnam to Sài Gòn.
The loss of the city prevented the Cambodians access to the South China Sea. Subsequently, the Khmers' access to the sea was now limited to the Gulf of Thailand.
Nguyễn Dynasty rule
In 1698, Nguyễn Hữu Cảnh, a Vietnamese noble, was sent by the Nguyễn rulers of Huế by sea to establish Vietnamese administrative structures in the area, thus detaching the area from Cambodia, which was not strong enough to intervene.
He is often credited with the expansion of Saigon into a significant settlement.
Colonial French era
Conquered by France in 1859, the city was influenced by the French during their colonial occupation of Vietnam, and a number of classical Western-style buildings in the city reflect this, so much so that Saigon was called "the Pearl of the Far East" (Hòn ngọc Viễn Đông) or "Paris in the Orient" (Paris Phương Đông).
Saigon had, in 1929, a population of 123,890, including 12,100 French.
Capital of South Vietnam
Saigon and Cholon, an adjacent city with many Sino-Vietnamese residents, were combined into an administrative unit called Đô Thành Sài Gòn ("Capital City Saigon").
Post-Vietnam War and today
Among Vietnamese diaspora communities and particularly the U.S. (which had fought the communists), this event is commonly called the “Fall of Saigon,” while the communist Socialist Republic of Vietnam calls it the “Liberation of Saigon.”
Children in a rainstorm, District 11.
Saigon is located at 10°45'N, 106°40'E in the southeastern region of Vietnam, 1,760 km (1,090 mi) south of Hanoi.
The average elevation is 19 metres (62 ft) above sea level.
It borders Tay Ninh and Binh Duong provinces to the north, Dong Nai and Ba Ria-Vung Tau provinces to the east, Long An Province to the west and the South China Sea to the south with a coast 15 km long.
The distance from the northernmost point (Phu My Hung Commune, Cu Chi District) to the southernmost one (Long Hoa Commune, Can Gio District) is 102 kilometers (63 mi), and from the easternmost point (Long Binh Ward, District Nine) to the westernmost one (Binh Chanh Commune, Binh Chanh District) is 47 kilometers (29 mi).
The city has a tropical climate, specifically a tropical wet and dry climate, with an average humidity of 75%.
The year is divided into two distinct seasons. The rainy season, with an average rainfall of about 1,800 millimetres (71 in) annually (about 150 rainy days per year), usually begins in May and ends in late November. The dry season lasts from December to April.
The average temperature is 28 °C (82 °F), the highest temperature sometimes reaches 39 °C (102 °F) around noon in late April, while the lowest may fall below 16 °C (61 °F) in the early mornings of late December.
|]Climate data for Saigon|
|Average high °C (°F)||31.6|
|Average low °C (°F)||21.1|
|Rainfall mm (inches)||13.8|
|Avg. rainy days||2.4||1.0||1.9||5.4||17.8||19.0||22.9||22.4||23.1||20.9||12.1||6.7||155.6|
|Source: World Meteorological Organisation (UN)|
Political and administrative system
Saigon is a municipality at the same level as Vietnam's provinces. The city has been divided into twenty-four administrative divisions since December 2003. Five of these (area: 1,601 km2) are designated as rural (huyện).
The rural districts are Nhà Bè, Cần Giờ, Hóc Môn, Củ Chi, and Bình Chánh. A rural district consists of communes (xã) and townships (thị trấn). The remaining districts (area: 494 km2) are designated urban or suburban (quận).
This includes districts one to twelve, as well as Tân Bình, Bình Thạnh, Phú Nhuận, Thủ Đức, Bình Tân, Tân Phú and Gò Vấp. Each district is sub-divided into wards ("Phường").
Since December 2006, the city has had 259 wards, 58 communes and 5 townships.
The Saigon People's Committee is a 13-member executive council for the city. The current chairman is Le Hoang Quan. There are several vice chairmen and chairwomen on the committee with responsibility for various city departments.
The legislative branch of the city government is called the People's Council and consists of 95 deputies.
Both the committee and the council are subordinate to the city's Communist Party, currently led by Party Secretary Lê Thanh Hải. The chairman of the People's Committee is the No. 2 position in the city government while chairman of the People's Council is No. 3.
List of Saigon Administrative Units
|Name of district (since December 2003)||Sub-division units (since December 2006)||Area (km2) (since December 2006)||Population as of Census October 1, 2004||Population as of Mid 2005||Population as of Mid 2006||Population as of Mid 2007||Population as of Census April 1, 2009|
|District 1||10 wards||7.73||198,032||199,899||200,768||203,214||180,225|
|District 2||11 wards||49.74||125,136||126,084||130,189||133,257||147,490|
|District 3||14 wards||4.92||201,122||199,297||199,172||201,515||190,553|
|District 4||15 wards||4.18||180,548||185,268||189,948||190,325||180,980|
|District 5||15 wards||4.27||170,367||192,157||191,258||195,841||171,452|
|District 6||14 wards||7.19||241,379||243,416||248,820||252,816||249,329|
|District 7||10 wards||35.69||159,490||163,608||176,341||198,958||244,276|
|District 8||16 wards||19.18||360,722||366,251||373,086||380,330||408,772|
|District 9||13 wards||114||202,948||207,696||214,345||221,314||256,257|
|District 10||15 wards||5.72||235,231||235,370||238,799||241,052||230,345|
|District 11||16 wards||5.14||224,785||225,908||227,220||229,616||226,854|
|District 12||11 wards||52.78||290.129||299,306||306,922||329,751||405,360|
|Go Vap District||16 wards||19.74||452,083||468,468||496,905||514,518||522,690|
|Tan Binh District||15 wards||22.38||397,569||394,281||387,681||399,943||421,724|
|Tan Phu District||11 wards||16.06||366,399||372,519||376,855||386,573||398,102|
|Binh Thanh District||20 wards||20.76||423,896||435,300||449,943||468,208||457,362|
|Phu Nhuan District||15 wards||4.88||175,293||175,716||175,825||180,511||174,535|
|Thu Duc District||12 wards||47.76||336,571||346,329||356,088||368,032||442,177|
|Binh Tan District||10 wards||51.89||398,712||403,643||447,173||469,201||572,132|
|Total Inner Districts||259 wards||494.01||5,140,412||5,240,516||5,387,338||5,564,975||5,880,615|
|Cu Chi District||20 communes and 1 township||434.50||288,279||296,032||309,648||321,663||343,155|
|Hoc Mon District||11 communes and 1 township||109.18||245,381||251,812||254,598||271,506||349,065|
|Binh Chanh District||15 communes and 1 township||252.69||304,168||311,702||330,605||347,278||420,109|
|Nha Be District||6 communes and 1 township||100.41||72,740||73,432||74,945||76,985||101,074|
|Can Gio District||6 communes and 1 township||704.22||66,272||66,444||67,385||68,535||68,846|
|Total Suburban Districts||58 communes and 5 townships||1,601||976,839||999,422||1,037,181||1,085,967||1,282,249|
|Whole City||259 wards, 58 communes and 5 townships||2,095.01||6,117,251||6,239,938||6,424,519||6,650,942||7,162,864|
The population of Saigon, as of the October 1, 2004 Census, was 6,117,251 (of which 19 inner districts had 5,140,412 residents and 5 suburban districts had 976,839 inhabitants).
In the middle of 2007 the city's population was 6,650,942 — with the 19 inner districts home to 5,564,975 residents and the 5 suburban districts containing 1,085,967 inhabitants.
The result of the 2009 Census shows that the city's population was 7,162,864 people, about 8.34% of the total population of Vietnam, making it the highest population-concentrated city in the country.
As an administrative unit, its population is also the largest at the provincial level.
As the largest economic and financial hub of Vietnam, Saigon has attracted more and more immigrants from other Vietnamese provinces in recent years; consequently its population has been and still is growing rapidly.
Since 1999 the city's population has increased by over 212,000 people per year.
The majority of the population are ethnic Vietnamese (Kinh) at about 93.52%.
Other ethnic minorities, including Khmer 0.34%, Cham 0.1%.
The inhabitants of Saigon are usually known as "Saigonese" in English, "Saigonnais" in French and "dân Sài Gòn" in Vietnamese.
The Kinh speak Vietnamese with their respective regional accents: southern (about 50%), northern (30%) and central Vietnam (20%).
A varying degree of English is spoken especially in the tourism and commerce sectors where dealing with foreign nationals is a necessity, so English has become a de facto second language for some Saigonese.
The religious makeup of HCMC is as follows: Buddhism (all sects and/or including Taoism, Confucianism) 80%, Roman Catholic 11%, Protestant 2%, others (Cao Dai, Hoa Hao, Islam, Hinduism, Bahá'í Faith) 2%, and no religion or unknown 5%.
Note that this percentage is not based on to the total population of Saigon as most Vietnamese are known to worship ancestors.
Typical housing in Saigon
Saigon is the economic center of Vietnam and accounts for a large proportion of the economy of Vietnam.
Although the city takes up just 0.6% of the country's land area, it contains 7.5% of the population of Vietnam, 20.2% of its GDP, 27.9% of industrial output and 34.9% of the FDI projects in the country in 2005.
In 2005, the city had 4,344,000 laborers, of whom 130,000 are over the labor age norm (in Vietnam, 60 for male and 55 for female workers).
The economy of Saigon consists of industries ranging from mining, seafood processing, agriculture, and construction, to tourism, finance, industry and trade.
The state-owned sector makes up 33.3% of the economy, the private sector 4.6%, and the remainder in foreign investment.
Concerning its economic structure, the service sector accounts for 51.1%, industry and construction account for 47.7% and forestry, agriculture and others make up just 1.2%.
As of June 2006, the city has been home to three export processing zones and twelve industrial parks.
Some 300,000 businesses, including many large enterprises, are involved in high-tech, electronic, processing and light industries, and also in construction, building materials and agro-products.
Additionally, crude oil is a popular economic base in Saigon.
Investors are still pouring money into the city.
Total local private investment was 160,000 billion dong ($10 billion) with 18,500 newly founded companies.
Investment trends to high technology, services and real estate projects.
Intel has invested about 1 billion dollars in a factory in the city.
Over 50 banks with hundreds of branches and about 20 insurance companies are also located inside the city.
The Saigon Stock Exchange, the first stock exchange in Vietnam, was opened in 2001.
There are 171 medium and large-scale markets as well as several supermarket chains, shopping malls, and fashion and beauty centers.
Additional malls and shopping plazas are being developed within the city, which thus far include:
Quang Trung Software Park is a software park situated in District 12.
The park is approximately 15 km from downtown Saigon and hosts software enterprises as well as dot.com companies.
The park also includes a software training school.
Dot.com investors here are supplied with other facilities and services such as residences and high-speed access to the internet as well as favorable taxation.
Together with the Saigon Hi-tech Park in District 9 and the 32 ha. software park inside Tan Thuan Export Processing Zone in District 7 of the city, Saigon aims to become an important hi-tech city in the country and the South-East Asia region.
This park helps the city in particular and Vietnam in general to become an outsourcing location for other enterprises in developed countries, as India has done.
In 2007, the city's GDP was estimated at $14.3 billion, or about $2,180 per capita, up 12.6 percent from 2006 and accounting for 20% of the country's GDP.
The GDP adjusted to Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) reached $71.5 billion, or about $10,870 per capita (approximately three times higher than the country's average).
The city's Industrial Product Value was $6.4 billion, equivalent to 30% the value of the entire nation.
Export-Import Turnover through HCMC ports accounted for $36 billion, or 40 percent of the national total, of which export revenue reached $18.3 billion (40 percent of Vietnam’s total export revenues).
In 2007, Saigon 's contribution to the annual revenues in the national budget increased by 30 percent, accounting for about 20.5 percent of total revenues.
In 2007, three million foreign tourists, about 70 percent of the total number of tourists to Vietnam, visited the city.
New urban areas
With a population now of 7,162,864 (as of Census 2009 on April 1, 2009) (registered residents plus migrant workers as well as a metropolitan population of 10 million), Saigon is in need of vast increases in public infrastructure.
To meet this need, the city and central governments have embarked on an effort to develop new urban centers.
The two most prominent projects are the Thu Thiem city center in District 2 and the Phu My Hung Urban Area, a new city center in District 7 (as part of the Saigon South project) where various international schools such as Saigon South International School, a Japanese school, Australia's Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Taiwanese and Korean schools are located.
In December 2007, Phu My Hung New City Center completed the 17.8 km 10–14 lane wide Nguyen Van Linh Roadway linking the Saigon port areas, Tan Thuan Export Processing Zone to the National Highway 1 and the Mekong delta area.
In November 2008, a brand new trade center, Saigon Exhibition and Convention Center, also opened its doors.
Other projects include Grandview, Waterfront, Sky Garden, Riverside and Phu Gia 99.
Phu My Hung New City Center received the first Model New City Award from the Vietnamese Ministry of Construction.
Saigon is served by Tan Son Nhat International Airport, located in Tan Binh District. Tan Son Nhat Airport is currently the largest airport in Vietnam in terms of passengers handled (with an estimated number of over 17.8 million passengers per year in 2010, accounting for more than half of Vietnam's air passenger traffic); it will soon be superseded by Long Thanh International Airport, scheduled to begin operation in 2025.
Based in Long Thanh, Dong Nai Province, about 40 km northeast of Saigon, Long Thanh Airport will serve international flights, with a maximum traffic capacity of 100 million passengers per year when fully completed; Tan Son Nhat Airport will serve domestic flights.
Saigon is also a terminal for many Vietnam Railways train routes in the country. The Reunification Express (tàu Thống Nhất) runs from Saigon to Hanoi from Saigon Railway Station in District 3, with stops at cities and provinces along the line.
The city's location on the Saigon River makes it a bustling commercial and passenger port; besides a constant stream of cargo ships, passenger boats operate regularly between Saigon and various destinations in Southern Vietnam and Cambodia, including Vung Tau, Can Tho and the Mekong Delta, and Phnom Penh.
Traffic between Saigon and Vietnam's southern provinces has steadily increased over the years; the Doi and Te Canals, the main routes to the Mekong Delta, receive 100,000 waterway vehicles every year, representing around 13 million tons of cargo.
A project to dredge these routes has been approved to facilitate transport, to be implemented in 2011–2014.
Inner city transportation
The main means of transport within the city are motorbikes, buses, taxis, and bicycles.
Motorbikes remain the most common way to move around the city.[
Public buses run on many routes and fare can be purchased on the bus.
For short trips, "xe ôm" (literally, "hug vehicle") motorcycle taxis are available where the passenger sits at the rear of a motorbike.
A popular activity for tourists is a tour of the city on cyclos, which allow for longer trips at a more relaxed pace. For the last few years, cars have become more popular.
Saigon skyline with Earth Hour 2009
Planners expect the route to serve more than 160,000 passengers daily.
The health care system of the city is relatively developed with a chain of about 100 government owned hospitals or medical centers and dozens of privately owned clinics. The 1,400 bed Chợ Rẫy Hospital, upgraded by Japanese aid and the French-sponsored Institute of Cardiology, are among the top medical facilities in Indochina. The Hoa Hao Medical Diagnosis Center (Medic) and FV Hospital have recently attracted many clients, including foreigners, because of their good quality of service and modern equipment. Patients come from cities in nearby provinces and Cambodia as well. The Franco-Vietnam Hospital (FVH) is certified to French health standards.
The city's media are the most developed in the country.
At present, there are seven daily newspapers: Sai Gon Giai Phong (Liberated Saigon) and its Chinese, investment and finance, sports, evening and weekly editions; Tuoi Tre (Youth), the highest circulation newspaper in Vietnam; Thanh Nien (Young Men), the second largest circulation in the south of Vietnam; Nguoi Lao Dong (Labourer); The Thao (Sports); Phap Luat (Law) and the Saigon Times Daily, the business newspaper in English, and over 30 other newspapers and magazines.
The city has hundreds of printing and publishing houses, many bookstores and a widespread network of public and school libraries; the city's General Library houses over 1.5 mìllion books.
Locally-based Saigon Television (HTV) is the second largest television network in the nation, just behind the national Vietnam Television (VTV), broadcasting 24/7 on 7 different channels (using analog and digital technology).
Many major international TV channels are provided through two cable networks (SCTV and HTVC), with over one million subscribers.
The Voice of Saigon is the largest radio station in Southern Vietnam.
Internet coverage, especially through ADSL connections, is rapidly expanding, with over 2,200,000 subscribers and around 5.5 million frequent users.
Internet service providers (ISPs) operating in Saigon include the Vietnam Data Communication Company (VDC), Corporation for Finance and Promoting Technology (FPT), Netnam Company, Saigon Post and Telecommunications Services Corporation (Saigon Postel Corporation, SPT) and Viettel Company.
As in all of Vietnam, Internet access is regulated; websites containing sensitive political or religious content are routinely blocked, and certain websites such as Facebook have been blocked, though government officials deny that this is intentional.
The city has over 2 million fixed telephones and about 15 million cellular phones (the latter growing annually by 20%).
Entrance to the Fine Arts Museum
There are many famous high schools in Saigon such as Le Hong Phong High School for the Gifted, High School for the Gifted (Pho Thong Nang Khieu),Tran Dai Nghia High School, Nguyen Thuong Hien High School, Nguyen Thi Minh Khai High School,etc.
Higher education in Saigon is quite developed, concentrating over 80 universities and colleges with a total of over 400,000 students in such places as: Vietnam National University, Saigon with 50,000 students, the most important university in the Southern Region, consisting of 6 main member schools:The University of Sciences (formerly Saigon College of Sciences); The University of Social Sciences and Humanities (formerly Saigon College of Letters); The University of Technology (formerly Phu Tho National Institute of Technology); The International University, The University of Economics and Law and the newly-established University of Information Technology.
Some other important higher education establishments include: Saigon University of Pedagogy, University of Economics, University of Architecture, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Nong Lam University (formerly University of Agriculture and Forestry), University of Law, University of Technical Education, University of Banking, University of Industry, Open University, University of Sports and Physical Education, University of Fine Arts, University of Culture, the Conservatory of Music, the Saigon Institute of Technology, Van Lang University, Saigon University and Hoa Sen University.
The RMIT University with about 6,000 students, the unique foreign-invested higher-education unit in Vietnam at the present, was founded in 2001 by the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) of Australia.
Several reputable English language schools following international curricula are located in Saigon as well.
Today, the city's core is still adorned with wide elegant boulevards and historic French colonial buildings.
The most prominent structures in the city center are Reunification Palace (Dinh Thống Nhất), City Hall (Ủy ban nhân dân Thành phố), the Municipal Theatre (Nhà hát thành phố, also known as the Opera House), City Post Office (Bưu điện thành phố), State Bank Office (Ngân hàng nhà nước), City People's Court (Tòa án nhân dân thành phố) and Notre-Dame Cathedral (Nhà thờ Đức Bà).
Some of the historic hotels are the Hotel Majestic, dating from the French colonial era, and the Rex Hotel, Caravelle hotel some former hangouts for American officers and war correspondents in the 1960s and 1970s.
The city has various museums, such as the Saigon Museum, Museum of Vietnamese History, the Revolutionary Museum, the Museum of Southeastern Armed Forces, the War Remnants Museum, the Museum of Southern Women, the Museum of Fine Art, the Nha Rong Memorial House, and the Ben Duoc Relic of Underground Tunnels.
Besides the Municipal Theatre, there are other places of entertainment such as: the Bến Thành and Hòa Bình Theaters and the Lan Anh Music Stage.
The Đầm Sen Tourist and Cultural Park, Suoi Tien Amusement and Culture Park, and the Can Gio Eco beach resort are three recreational sites inside the city which are popular with tourists.
Saigon is home to hundreds of cinemas and theatres, with cinema and dramatic ticketing revenue accounting for 60–70% of Vietnam’s total revenue in this industry.
Unlike other dramatic teams in Vietnam’s provinces and municipalities, those in Saigon live on their own income and keep their theaters active everyday, and are not subsidized by the Vietnamese government.
The city is home to most of the private movie companies in Vietnam.
Backpacking travelers most often frequent the "Western Quarter" on Pham Ngu Lao street in District 1.
The Continental Palace Hotel in 1966
Exercise and sports
According to statistics in 1994, all of Saigon has 492.7 hectares for sports activities, on average 1.02 m² per person, including the inner city is 0.26 m² per person. With the increasing population, the actual number is now lower.
In 2005, the city has 91 football fields, 86 swimming pools, 256 gyms.
The largest stadium in the city today is the Thống Nhất stadium, with 25 thousand seats.
The second largest one is Quân khu 7, located in the Tan Binh district. Not just for sport, it is also the site of the many music programs scale.
An important sporting venues of the city, Phu Tho Racing School, emerged from the colonial period. It is the only racecourse in Vietnam.
There are 25 sister cities/regions of Saigon:
|Shanghai, People's Republic of China||May 14, 1994|
|Manila, the Philippines||June 27, 1994|
|San Francisco, the USA||April 10, 1995|
|Osaka, Japan||June 13, 1995|
|Busan, Republic of Korea||November 3, 1995|
|Guangzhou, People's Republic of China||April 1, 1996|
|Lyon, France||January 17, 1997|
|Shenyang, People's Republic of China||April 21, 1999|
|Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia||September 5, 2000|
|Champasak Province, Laos||August 28, 2001|
|Vientiane, Laos||September 1, 2001|
|Rhône-Alpes (region), France||November 8, 2001|
|Phnom Penh, Cambodia||June 2002|
|Moscow, Russia||October 31, 2003|
|Saint Peterburg, Russia||December 9, 2005|
|Toronto, Canada||February 13, 2006|
|Geneva, Switzerland||April 13, 2007|
|Yokohama, Japan||July 23, 2007|
|Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan||October 27, 2007|
|Guangdong, People's Republic of China||September 10, 2008|
|Minsk, Belarus||November 4, 2008|
|Vladivostok, Russia||May 21, 2009|
|Barcelona, Spain||May 29, 2009|
|Seville, Spain||May 29, 2009|
|Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa||November 10, 2009|
Note: 1.^ Đồng Nai Province's Populations: 2.254.676 (2006), Bà Rịa Vũng Tàu Province's Populations:862.081 (2002), Binh Duong Province's Populations: 1,2 million (2007), Saigon's Populations: 5.037.155 (1999)
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- ^ Letter from Saigon, A Tribute to My Vietnam Vet Father BEN BROWN. [Counterpunch] Magazine. Retrieved 19-12-2007.
- ^ "NGA: Country Files". Earth-info.nga.mil. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- ^ About Saigon MyVietnam.info. Retrieved 13-08-2009.
- ^ "Quy hoạch xây dựng vùng Saigon". VnEconomy. April 25, 2008.
- ^ "List of most expensive cities for expatriate employees". English Wikipedia.
- ^ 1891 Map of Vietnam (Viet Nam Toan Tinh Du Do) from the Library of Congress
- ^ a b Truong Vinh Ky, Souvenirs historiques sur Saigon et ses environs, trongExcursions et Reconnaissance X. Saigon, Imprimerie Coloniale 1885
- ^ Robert M. Salkin, Trudy Ring (1996). Paul E. Schellinger, Robert M. Salkin. ed. Asia and Oceania. International Dictionary of Historic Places. 5. Taylor & Francis. p. 353. ISBN 1884964044.
- ^ "Saigon, Tan Son Nhat (SGN)". theAirDB.com. Retrieved June 15, 2010.
- ^ The first settlers, http://www.Saigon.gov.vn/eng
- ^ a b "Pearl of the Orient is still Vietnam's heart". Travelterrific.com. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- ^ "Yearbook of the Encyclopedia Americana (2006)". p.175.
- ^ "World Weather Information Service – Saigon".
- ^ a b c d e "Statistical office in Saigon". Pso.Saigon.gov.vn. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- ^ "Cục thống kê - Tóm tắt kết quả điều tra dân số". Pso.Saigon.gov.vn. 2001-01-04. Retrieved 2010-10-04.
- ^ Statististisc in 2005 on the city’s official website.
- ^ Saigon Economics Institute.
- ^ Forbes, "".
- ^ Chỉ tiêu tổng hợp giai đoạn 2001 – 2006, on Saigon government website.
- ^ EPZ and Industrial Park PMU of Saigon
- ^ Hàn Ni, "Saigon dẫn đầu thu hút vốn FDI vì biết cách bứt phá". Sài Gòn giải phóng, 3 tháng 11, 2007.
- ^ "Saigon sau 1 năm gia nhập WTO – Vượt lên chính mình...", Trung tâm thông tin thương mại.
- ^ "Saigon attracts record FDI in 2008".
- ^ Minh Anh, "Quy mô tiêu dùng 41,5 tỉ USD: Đầu kéo phát triển!". Tuổi Trẻ, August 20, 2007.
- ^ Saigon's position in Vietnam's economy, Saigon Official Website Accessed 19-11-2007
- ^ "mofahcm" (in Vietnamese). mofahcm. Retrieved April 3, 2010. "Số lượng khách quốc tế đến Saigon đã đạt tới 3 triệu lượt người, tăng 14,6% so với năm 2006, chiếm 70% tổng lượng du khách đến VN... Lượng hàng hóa vận chuyển qua cảng đạt 50,5 triệu tấn..."
- ^ Thông tin Thương mại Việt Nam
- ^ VIETNAMNET, Ha Noi, Viet nam. "VietNamNet – Vietnam the key real estate market in Asia". English.vietnamnet.vn. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- ^ Expansion of Saigon – Tan Son Nhat International Airport on Sài Gòn Giải Phóng Newspaper on October 13, 2007 
- ^ Two more Hanoi<>Saigon flights per day for Pacific Airlines on “Vietnamnet.net, access date November 11, 2007 (Vietnamese) 
- ^ "Airport Development News". Retrieved May 19, 2008.
- ^ Vietnam News Service. "City to expand waterway transport". Vietnam News.
- ^ a b "Saigon Metro". Railway-technology.com. Retrieved April 4, 2010.
- ^ Dinh Muoi. "Saigon's subway route No.2 approved". Thanh Nien.
- ^ "OpenNet Initiative Vietnam Report: University Research Team Finds an Increase in Internet Censorship in Vietnam". Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University. August 5, 2006. Retrieved July 15, 2008.
- ^ Ben Stocking (November 17, 2009). "Vietnam Internet users fear Facebook blackout". The San Francisco Chronicle. Associated Press. Retrieved November 17, 2009
- ^ "Saigon Open University". Ou.edu.vn. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- ^ > Các số năm 2006 -> Số 1 năm 2006
- ^ Cultural news in Vietnam – exercise and sports on Viện Kinh tế Saigon.
- ^ Exercise and sports, a page of PSO Saigon
- ^ "CÁC ĐỊA PHƯƠNG NƯỚC NGOÀI ĐÃ THIẾT LẬP QUAN HỆ HỮU NGHỊ HỢP TÁC VỚI Saigon". www.mofahcm.gov.vn. 2010-10-09. Retrieved 2011-01-08.
- Official website (in Vietnamese and English)
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Tuệ Thành meeting house in Chinatown in District 5
Main Post Office in Saigon in District 1